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Income Working Papers

Working papers are intended to make results of Census Bureau research available to others and to encourage discussion on a variety of topics. They have not undergone a review and editorial process generally accorded official Census Bureau publications.

View the list of working paper topics.

View the list of working papers by year.

To find Working Papers for a specifc survey follow the links below:

  • All
  • 2022
  • 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013
  • 2012
  • 2011
  • 2010
  • 2008
  • 2007
  • 2006
  • 2005
  • 2004
  • 2003
  • 2002
  • 2000
  • 1999
  • 1998
  • 1996
  • 1994
  • 1991
  • 1990
  • 1989
  • 1988
  • 1987
  • 1986

Working Paper
School Lunch and P-EBT Valuation in the 2021 SPM
This paper describes the updated method for calculating and assigning school lunch values in the 2021 SPM.

Working Paper
Unbanked and Impoverished? Exploring Banking and Poverty Interactions
Using three leading household surveys, this paper documents how the interaction between bank access and poverty has evolved over time.

Working Paper
Effects of 2020 Census-Based Population Controls on 2020 Estimates
This paper demonstrates the effect of using the 2020 Census-based population controls on the 2020 data by presenting key estimates using both the 2010 and 2020

Working Paper
Examining the Impact of Medical Expenses on Supplemental Poverty Rates
The paper examines the impact of deducting out-of-pocket medical expenses on Supplemental Poverty rates.

Working Paper
2022 ACS Content Test: Round 3 Cognitive Testing Results
This report summarizes results from Round 3 of cognitive testing, which gathered feedback from individuals in groups quarters facilities and Puerto Rico.

Working Paper
The Impact of Alternative Inflation Adjustments on CPS ASEC Income Statistics
This paper documents the implications of using chain type price indices to inflation adjust estimates of historical income and earnings statistics.

Working Paper
2022 ACS Content Test: Round 1 and Round 2 Cognitive Testing Results
This report summarizes results from two rounds of cognitive testing for the 2022 ACS Content Test.

Working Paper
Self-Employment Status: Imputations, Implications, and Improvements
A paper that examines the quality of self-employment imputation in Census surveys.

Working Paper
Using WIC Administrative Data to Evaluate the SPM
This paper links state administrative data on the WIC program to the CPS ASEC to assess the impact of WIC misreporting on the Supplemental Poverty Measure.


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