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Decennial Census Official Publications

The census tells us who we are and where we are going as a nation. The census helps our communities determine where to build everything from schools to supermarkets, and from homes to hospitals. It helps the government decide how to distribute funds and assistance to states and localities. It is also used to draw the lines of legislative districts and reapportion the seats each State holds in Congress.

For access to volumes not available, please contact your local Federal Depository Library.

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1970

Information about the 1970 Census

When planning for the 1970 census, the need for an accurate count of the population was even greater than in the past because of the increasing tendency for governmental bodies to use population as a basis for distributing funds, and the more general awareness by local government officials and others of the potential effects of census undercounts.

Throughout the 1960s, researchers had reported that the population was increasingly resistant to the census. Studies had shown more alienation and distrust of government, and there appeared to be more organized attempts to protest the census. Furthermore, undercounts following the 1950 and 1960 censuses were blamed upon the enumerators’ failure to follow instructions. Hence, stress was placed on simplified procedures, training, and quality control. Analysis of the results of the 1960 evaluation program and studies performed in the 1950s and 1960s indicated that the reasons for the under counts were more complex. In particular, a substantial part of the undercount appeared to be due to either deliberate attempts by some segments of the population to be omitted from the census or the fact that they did not fit into any households by the “conventional rules” of residence. Even where the undercount was due to complete households being missed, the causes were frequently such that additional enumerator training produced only marginal gains.

This analysis led to a two-phase approach to coverage for the 1970 census. The first phase was the use of a basic census methodology that permitted knowledgeable outside sources to have an offer in put into the list of housing units established by the census, and provided for automatic checks that enumerators actually completed a questionnaire for all known units.1 This was done in areas containing about 60 percent of the population through the creation of an address register independent of the enumeration phase, correction and updating of the register by U.S. Post Office employees familiar with their routes, and checks by Census Bureau employees to ensure that all housing units on the address register were accounted for when enumerators had completed their assignments.

A self-enumeration questionnaire was used in 1970 (as in 1960 for 60 percent of the population). Such questionnaires were believed to provide better reporting within households, because they provided respondents uniform census definitions and rules to follow for unusual household residence situations. In the areas containing the remaining 40 percent of the population, more conventional listing procedures were followed, but with self-enumeration features.

The second phase of the 1970 enumeration was to superimpose on the regular census procedures projects specifically designed to increase coverage. Prior to 1970, studies of the effectiveness of a variety of devices for improving coverage were made, generally as part of large-scale tests conducted during the 1960s, which resulted in several coverage improvement initiatives.

The 1970 coverage improvement program included measures to improve coverage by (1) developing a more favorable public view of the census; (2) increasing the public’s understanding of the importance of the census and its confidentiality; and (3) improving the enumerators’ performance in hard-to-enumerate areas through intensive training and supervision. The specific changes made included—

  • A sharp reduction in the number of questions to be asked of households—the number of inquiries on the questionnaire intended for 3 million households had been reduced from 66 to 23.
  • Questions on the adequacy of kitchen and bathroom facilities were reworded to remove any implication that the federal government was trying to ascertain with whom these were shared.
  • The Secretary of Commerce increased his supervision of the census and retained independent experts as census advisors.
  • A letter accompanied the census questionnaire that explained the need for data requested and emphasized the confidentiality of responses.2

Census questionnaires with instruction sheets were delivered by the U.S. Post Office to every household several days prior to “Census Day”—April 1, 1970. In areas with comparatively large populations of Spanish-speaking households, a Spanish-language version of the instruction sheet also was enclosed. Households either received a short-form questionnaire, which contained questions asked of 100 percent of the population (80 percent of the population received this form), or a long-form questionnaire, sent to 20 percent of the population, containing questions asked of 15 and 5 percent of the population.

In larger metropolitan areas and some adjacent counties (approximately 60 percent of the United States’ population), households were asked to complete and return the questionnaire by mail on April 1, 1970 (resulting in an 87 percent mail back response rate), which was then reviewed by an enumerator or census clerk. Telephone or personal follow-up was made to complete or correct missing, incomplete, or inconsistent questionnaires. For the remaining 40 percent of the United States’ population, instructions asked that the householder complete the form and hold it for pickup by an enumerator.

1 Throughout the census history, a small percentage of enumerators completed questionnaires by “curb stoning.” Curb stoning meant the enumerator completed questionnaires for an individual or multiple households from the curb, without actually conducting an interview or checking the accuracy of their “guesses.” This practice was motivated, in part, by the requirement to meet quotas or payment for work done on a “piece-of-work” basis.

2 United States Department of Commerce News, April 18, 1969. P.1.


Publication
Population and Housing Inquiries in U.S. Decennial Censuses, 1790-1970
This Population and Housing Inquiries in U.S. Decennial Censuses, 1790-1970 publication is from the Decennial Census.


Publication
1970 Census - Characteristics of Civilian Male Veterans for the U.S.
Reprint of table 202 Final Report PC(1)D1, Detailed Characteristics, US Summary, contains summary information on detailed characteristics of the population.


Publication
1970 Census - Country of Origin, Mother Tongue, and Citizenship
Reprints of tables 192, 193, 194, 195 Final Report PC(1)01, Detailed Characteristics, US Summary, contains summary info on characteristics of the population.


Publication
1970 Census - Interstate Migration by State
Tables 23, 44, 45 Final Rept PC(2)2B Mobility for States/Nation, info on mobility status from 1965-70 cross-classified w/various social & econ characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census - Population, Earnings by Occupation and Education
Statistics for the United States and regions on the earnings of males and females, classified by various demographic, social, and economic characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census - Population, Low-Income Areas in Large Cities
Statistics on the social, economic, and housing characteristics of the population in low income areas of the 50 largest cities of the United States.


Publication
1970 Census - Population, Sources and Structure of Family Income
Statistics on income of families, family members, unrelated individuals, and persons in the experienced civilian labor force, by type of residence.


Publication
1970 Census - Social and Economic Characteristics by Marital Status
Reprints of tables 4, 8, 12, 15, Final Report PC(2)4C, Marital Status, contains additional information on the characteristics of persons by marital status.


Publication
1970 Census - Work Disability of Family Heads by Family Income in 1969
Extracted from table 10 of Final Report PC(2)6C, Persons With Work Disability, which contains more information on characteristics of persons w/work disability.


Publication
1970 Census: Detailed Occupation of Persons by Race and Sex
The data presented here are from table 223 of Final Report PC(1)-011 Detailed Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Persons With Work Disability
This report presents detailed statistics on the presence and duration of work disability for the noninstitutional population 18 to 64 years old.


Publication
1970 Census: Persons by Family Characteristics
This report presents statistics for the United States and regions for persons by characteristics of the households and families of which they are members.


Publication
1970 Census - Population: Persons of Spanish Ancestry
This report shows counts of the Spanish ancestry population for the country as a whole, regions, divisions, and states.


Publication
1970 Census: Educational Attainment
This report presents statistics on the educational attainment of the population 14 years old and over by demographic, social, and economic characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census: Lifetime and Recent Migration
This report presents statistics for the United States on birthplace, residence in 1965, and residence in 1970 for persons 5 years old and over.


Publication
1970 Census: Mobility for Metropolitan Areas
This report presents statistics on the movement of persons five years old and over to, from, and within the SMSA's during the period 1965 to 1970.


Publication
1970 Census: State of Birth
This report presents statistics on State of birth and residence in 1970 for the native population of the United States.


Publication
1970 Census - Population, Income of the Farm-Related Population
Statistics on the net farm self-employment income received and the value of farm products sold in 1969 by rural farm households.


Publication
1970 Census: Age at First Marriage
This report presents detailed statistics for the United States on characteristics of persons 14 years old and over by age at first marriage.


Publication
1970 Census: Age at First Marriage and Children Ever Born
The data in this report present highlights regarding age at first marriage for men and women 30 to 49 years old and regarding number of children ever born.


Publication
1970 Census: Educational Attainment by Age, Sex, & Race, for the U.S.
This supplementary report presents data extracted from table 199 of Final Report PC(1)-D1. Detailed Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Employment Status and Work Experience
This report presents detailed statistics on employment status and work experience classified by various demographic, social, and economic characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census: School Enrollment
This report presents detailed statistics on school enrollment of the population 3 to 49 years old by various demographic, social, and economic characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census: Age and Earnings by Occupation for the U.S.
This supplementary report presents statistics from the 1970 Census on occupational distributions by age, race, sex, and earnings.


Publication
1970 Census: Detailed Industry of Employed Persons by Race and Sex
This supplementary report provides detailed industry information for persons employed in 1970 by sex and race for the United States.


Publication
1970 Census: Family Composition
This report presents detailed statistics on the composition of families, cross-classified by various social and economic characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census: Low-Income Families in 1969, by Type, Age, & Race of Head
This supplementary report presents data extracted from table 260 of Final Report PC(1)-D1, Detailed Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Marital Status and Living Arrangements of the Population
This supplementary report presents data extracted from table 2 of final report PC(2)-4B, Persons by Family Characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census: Vocational Training
This report presents detailed statistics for the population on field of vocational training, classified by various social and economic characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census - Fertility of U.S. Women by Education and Family Income
Reprints of tables 35, 36, 37, 53, 54 from PC(2)3A Women by Number of Children Ever Born, additional detailed information on the fertility of the population.


Publication
1970 Census - Labor Force Characteristics of Persons and Families
Extracted from tables 2, 16, 26, Final Report PC(2)6A, Employment Status and Work Experience, contains additional info on employment and other characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census - Migration by Educational Attainment for the U.S.
State (or division) of birth is compared with state (or division) of residence in 1965 and state of residence in 1970.


Publication
1970 Census - Nativity and Parentage of Families of Foreign Stock
The data presented here are extracted from table 20 of final report PC(2)-1A, National Origin and Language.


Publication
1970 Census - Patterns of Commuting in Large Metropolitan Areas
Reprint of table 363, Final Report PC(1)01, Detailed Characteristics, US Summary, contains add'l summary information on detailed characteristics of population.


Publication
1970 Census - Population, Occupation and Residence in 1965
Statistics comparing changes in occupation, industry, & State of residence between 1965 and 1970, cross-classified by various social & economic characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census - Population, Occupational Characteristics
Statistics on occupation cross-classified by selected social and economic characteristics for the experienced civilian labor force and employed persons.


Publication
1970 Census - Population: Population of Places of 2,500 or More
Data for each place of 2,500 inhabitants or more, population in 1970 and 1960, percent change between the 2 years, land area, persons per square mile in 1970.


Publication
1970 Census of Population and Housing: Census Tracts
This report series contains individual reports for 241 standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA), and in some cases covers areas adjacent to the SMSA.


Publication
1970 Census: Employment Profiles of Selected Low-Income Areas
This report presents detailed socio-economic information on employment related problems collected in each of 51 cities and 7 rural poverty areas.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Composition of the Urban Population
The table presented here is a reprint of table 16 from Final Report PC(1)-A1, Number of Inhabitants, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, U.S., Puerto Rico, and Outlying Areas
This report presents data from the 1970 Census on the population of the United States, Puerto Rico, and Outlying Areas from 1950 to 1970.


Publication
1970 Census: Age of the Population of the United States
This supplementary report contains additional summary information on general characteristics of the population as well as more detailed technical explanations.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Population Annexed to Central Cities of MSAs
Reprint of table 40 from Final Report PC(1)-A1, Number of Inhabitants, U.S. Summary with add'l info on the geo distr of the population.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Population and Land Area of Urbanized Areas
The table presented here is a reprint of table 20 from Final Report PC(1)-A1, Number of Inhabitants, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Population of Places of 10,000 or More
This report presents the population of places of 10,000 inhabitants or more by wards


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Population of Standard MSAs
Reprint of table 32 from Final Report PC(1)-A1, Number of Inhabitants, U.S. Summary with add'l info on the geo distr of the population.


Publication
1970 Census: Race of the Population of the U.S., by States
Reprint of table 60 from Final Report PC(1)-B1, General Population Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Age and Race of the Population of the U.S., by States
The table presented here is a reprint of table 62 from Final Report PC(1)-B1, General Population Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Household Relationship for Regions
The table presented here is a reprint of table 65 from Final Report PC(1)-B1, General Population Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Race and Urban and Rural Residence of the Population
The table presented here is a reprint of table 61 from Final Report PC(1)-B1, General Population Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Residence of the Population
The table presented here is a reprint of tables 20 and 24 from Final Report PC(1)-B1, General Population Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Race for SMSA's, Urban and Places of 50,000 or More
This Supplementary Report presents statistics by race for standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's), urbanized areas, and places of 50,000 or more.


Publication
Preliminary National Census Survival Rates, by Race & Sex, 1960-1970
This report presents a set of preliminary national census survival rates for use in estimating net migration during the decade 1960 to 1970.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Population of Metropolitan Statistical
This report presents population data for 21 SMSA's established between November 1971 and January 1972 by OMB, federal agency responsible for defining SMSA's.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Country of Origin of the Foreign Stock
The table presented here is a reprint of table 70 from Final Report PC(1)-C1, General Social and Economic Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Educational Characteristics of U.S.
The table presented here is a reprint of table 99 from Final Report PC(1)-C1, General Social and Economic Characteristics, United States Summary


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Mobility, Commuting, and Veteran Status
The table presented here is a reprint of table 98 from Final Report PC(1)-C1, General Social and Economic Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Subject Reports: State Economic Areas
Statistics on general social and economic characteristics of the inhabitants of each of the 510 State economic areas into which the United States is divided.


Publication
1970 Census of Population: Migration Between State Economic Areas
This report presents statistics on the movement of persons 5 years old and over between State economic areas during the period 1965 to 1970.


Publication
1970 Census: Industry of Employed Persons for the U.S.
This supplementary report presents statistics on industries where people were employed by sex and size of place in 1970.


Publication
1970 Census: Occupation of Employed Persons for the U.S.
This supplementary report presents selected data on the occupations of employed persons in 1970 by sex and size of place.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Employment of the Population for the U.S.
The table presented here is a reprint of table 101 from Final Report PC(1)-C1, General Social and Economic Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Fertility and Family Composition for the US
The table presented here is a reprint of table 100 from Final Report PC(1)-C1, General Social and Economic Characteristics, United States Summary.


Publication
1970 Census: Weeks Worked, Class of Worker, and Labor Mobility
This supplementary report presents selected employment characteristics by sex and size of place and summarizes major employment trends in 1970 by sex.


Publication
The Social and Economic Status of the Black Population, 1971
This report is the fifth in a series of statistical reports about the social and economic conditions of the black population in the United States.


Publication
1970 Census - Population: Rural Population by Farm-Nonfarm by County
Revised data on rural farm and rural-nonfarm populations, replacing figures in 1970 Population Census series PC(1)C, General Social & Economic Characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census: Housing, Volume II. Metropolitan Housing Characteristics
Presents cross-tabulations of housing and household characteristics from the 1970 Census of Population and Housing for the U.S. and regions, by metro residence.


Publication
1970 Census: Population and Housing Characteristics, by State
National and state statistics on various population and housing subjects in a format comparable with the presentation in 1970 Census PHC(1) series.


Publication
1970 Census - Population: 1970 Population of Congressional Districts
Figures shown for 429 districts plus the six states where a Representative is elected at large—Alaska, Delaware, Nevada, North Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Subject Reports: Occupation by Industry
National statistics from the 1970 Census of Population cross-classifying occupation by industry for the employed and the experienced unemployed.


Publication
1970 Census: Housing Characteristics for States, Cities, and Counties
This report presents stats from 1970 Census of Housing on characteristics of housing units for the U.S., regions, divisions, States, and certain other areas.


Publication
1970 Census: Marital Status
This report presents detailed statistics on the marital status of the population 14 years old and over and data for married couples by various characteristics.


Publication
1970 Census - Population, Final Population Counts
Final statistics on the number of inhabitants of the United States, each State and its counties, classified by urban and rural residence.


Publication
1970 Census: General Demographic Trends for Metropolitan Areas
This publication is one of a series of 1970 census reports concerned mainly with population and housing trends in the metropolitan areas from 1960 to 1970.


Publication
1970 Census of Population: General Population Characteristics
This summary report presents statistics on the basic demographic characteristics (age, sex, race, and relationship to head of household) of the population.


Publication
Differences Between Incomes of White and Negro Families by Region
This report features comparisons between the families residing in the North and West, and those in the South.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Distribution of the Negro Population
Report show the geographic distribution of the Negro population of the United States in 1970.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Negro Population in Selected Places&Counties
Report presents a compilation of statistics from 1970 census on the distribution of the Negro population in selected places/selected counties across the Nation.


Publication
1970 Census: Housing, Volume III. Block Statistics
This report presents statistics from the 1970 census, by blocks, on general characteristics of housing units and population.


Publication
1970 Census: Population, Population of Voting Age for States
This report presents a compilation of data from the 1970 census on the number of persons of voting age by states.

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