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2020 Census Residence Criteria and Residence Situations

2020 Census Residence Criteria and Residence Situations

The U.S. Census Bureau is committed to counting every person in the 2020 Census once, only once, and in the right place. The fundamental reason that the decennial census is conducted is to fulfill the Constitutional requirement (Article I, Section 2) to apportion the seats in the U.S. House of Representatives among the states. For a fair and equitable apportionment, it is crucial that the Census Bureau counts everyone in the right place during the decennial census.

The residence criteria are used to determine where people should be counted during each decennial census. Specific residence situations are included with the criteria to illustrate how the criteria are applied.

The Concept of Usual Residence

The Census Act of 1790 established the concept of “usual residence” as the main principle in determining where people should be counted, and this concept has been followed in all subsequent censuses. “Usual residence” has been defined as the place where a person lives and sleeps most of the time. This place is not necessarily the same as the person's voting residence or legal residence.

Determining usual residence is straightforward for most people. However, given our nation's wide diversity in types of living arrangements, the concept of usual residence has a variety of applications. Some examples of these living arrangements include people experiencing homelessness, people with a seasonal or second residence, people in group facilities, people in the process of moving, people in hospitals, children in shared custody arrangements, college students, live-in employees, military personnel, and people who live in workers' dormitories.

Reviewing the Residence Criteria for the 2020 Census

Every decade, the Census Bureau undertakes a review of the decennial residence criteria and residence situations to ensure that the concept of usual residence is interpreted and applied in the decennial census as intended, and that these interpretations are consistent with the intent of the law, which directs the Census Bureau to enumerate people at their usual residence. This review also serves as an opportunity to identify new or changing living situations resulting from societal change, and to create or revise the residence criteria guidance for those situations.

2015 Federal Register Notice: 2020 Decennial Census Residence Criteria and Residence Situations

On May 20, 2015, the Census Bureau requested public comment on the “2010 Census Residence Rule and Residence Situations” through the Federal Register, to determine if changes should be made for the 2020 Census. During the comment period for this May 20, 2015 Federal Register notice, the Census Bureau received 252 comment submission letters or emails that contained 262 total comments. (Some comment submissions included comments or suggestions on more than one residence situation.) In the links below, the Census Bureau is also providing a summary of all comments received, as well as the full text of each comment submission letter or email.

Comment Summary

This document summarizes the comments the Census Bureau received in response to the May 20, 2015 Federal Register notice seeking public comment on the Residence Criteria and Situations for the 2020 Census.

.pdf Summary of Comments on 2015 Federal Register Notice [<1.0 MB]
This document summarizes the comments the Census Bureau received in response to the May 20, 2015 Federal Register notice seeking public comment on the Residence Rule and Situations for the 2020 Census.

Full Text of Comments

This table provides the actual text of each of the comment submissions received in response to the May 20, 2015 Federal Register notice. Personal information has been removed out of respect for commenters' privacy. Some comments include maps, charts or other graphics. The full text of these comments is included in an appendix since the format did not allow for them to be presented in the table.

.pdf Full Text of Comments on 2015 Federal Register Notice [9.6 MB]
This table provides the actual text of each of the comment submissions received. Personal information has been removed out of respect for commenter's privacy. Some comments include maps, charts or other graphics. The full text of these comments is included in an appendix since the format did not allow for them to be presented in the table.

2016 Federal Register Notice: Proposed 2020 Census Residence Criteria and Residence Situations

On June 30, 2016, the Census Bureau requested public comment on the proposed “2020 Census Residence Criteria and Residence Situations” through the Federal Register. This publication also includes a summary of comments received in response to the May 20, 2015 Federal Register notice, as well as the Census Bureau’s responses to those comments. During the comment period for this June 30, 2016 Federal Register notice, the Census Bureau received 77,958 comment submission letters or emails that contained 77,995 total comments. (Some comment submissions included comments or suggestions on more than one residence situation. Of the 77,958 comment submissions, 2,958 contained unique content and 75,000 were duplicates.)

2018 Federal Register Notice: Final 2020 Census Residence Criteria and Residence Situations

On February 8, 2018, the Census Bureau published the final “2020 Census Residence Criteria and Residence Situations” through the Federal Register. This publication also included a summary of comments received in response to the June 30, 2016 Federal Register notice, as well as the Census Bureau’s responses to those comments.

Additional Resources


2020 Census: Counting People in Group Living Arrangements
The Census Bureau had a special process for counting people living or staying in a group living arrangement, also known as group quarter.


2020 Census: Counting People at Transitory Locations
2020 Census Enumeration at Transitory Locations counts people in occupied units at transitory locations who do not usually live or stay at another place.


2020 Census: Counting People at Service-Based Locations
Service-Based Enumeration provided an opportunity for people without conventional housing and people who may be experiencing homelessness to be counted.


Fact Sheet
How the 2020 Census Counts People Experiencing Homelessness
People experiencing homelessness live in a variety of situations, such as temporarily staying with family or friends, living outside or living at a shelter.


Fact Sheet
2020 Census: Counting College Students
Whether you live on or off campus or at home with family, you need to be counted in the 2020 Census.


Video
2020 Census: What College Students Need to Know to Be Counted in the Right Place


America Counts Story
People in Transitory Living Situations To Be Counted in 2020 Census
The U.S. Census Bureau has a plan to count people without permanent addresses, including sending 14,000 workers to campgrounds, RV parks, hotels and marinas.


Video
2020 Census: Counting Young Children


America Counts Story
Census Works With Various Organizations to Count Children in 2020
Census Bureau joins national and local partners at an event in Cleveland on Feb. 22 to raise awareness about the importance of counting kids in 2020.


Fact Sheet
How We Count: Military Members, Veterans, and Their Families
Responses to the 2020 Census help determine how hundreds of billions of dollars in federal funding is distributed to local communities.


America Counts Story
Counting All Military Service Members and Their Families in 2020
Active duty military, veterans and their families are a vital part of community life and need to be counted in the 2020 Census.


America Counts Story
On, Off Campus or With Parents, College Students Count in 2020 Census
Where should college students be counted when they live away from home? Where they are living on April 1, 2020 – not at their parents’ home.


America Counts Story
Counting People in Rural and Remote Locations
The U.S. Census Bureau takes a number of measures to count people living in rural and remote areas during the 2020 Census.


America Counts Story
Big Push to Count Every Newborn and Young Child in 2020 Census
Children under 5 are one of the largest undercounted groups in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau is making a concerted effort to count all children.


Fact Sheet
Counting young children in the 2020 Census
Counting young children in the 2020 Census.

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