From the Guide to 2010 State and Local Census Geography – New Mexico – History:
The United States acquired almost all the area of New Mexico from Mexico in 1848. The United States acquired a small area, comprising the southwestern corner of New Mexico, from Mexico in 1853 as part of the Gadsden Purchase. New Mexico Territory was organized from the acquired area December 13, 1850 and included most of present-day Arizona and New Mexico as well as parts of Colorado and Nevada. The territory was reduced with the organization of Colorado Territory in 1861 and Arizona Territory in 1863 to assume generally the same boundary as the present state.
Census data are available for New Mexico beginning with the 1850 census. The 1850 census population is for the entire New Mexico Territory, including areas not in present-day New Mexico. For an explanation of the revision to the 1860 population of New Mexico, see Richard L. Forstall, Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996, page 110.
Data for the legally established state of New Mexico are available beginning with the 1920 census.
From QuickFacts: statistics for all states and counties, and for cities and towns with a population of 5,000 or more.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division (Annual Estimates of the Resident Population).
Source: 2019 American Community Survey (ACS) 1-Year Estimates.
Source: Business Formation Statistics (BFS).
From Foreign Trade > U.S. International Trade Data:
Source: Monthly State Retail Sales (Select New Mexico)
From the State Data Center (SDC) Program:
From Census Bureau History:
From the Library > America Counts: Stories Behind the Numbers:
From the Statistics in Schools (SIS) program: