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1840 Census: Compendium of the Enumeration of the Inhabitants and Statistics of the United States

This publication contains the following data from the 1840 census:

  • population counts and characteristics, and
  • economic data pertaining to mines, agriculture, horticulture, forest products, fisheries, commerce, and manufactures.

The economic data include aggregate value, quantity produced, capital invested, and number of persons employed, among other data.

Population counts by age grouping are provided for the following categories of persons:

  • free white males,
  • free white females,
  • free colored males, and
  • free colored females.

Counts of male slaves and female slaves are sometimes provided by age grouping.  Characteristic data pertain only to free persons.  The population data include information on employment by industry.

Beginning with Part I and through Part V, the population data are presented by counties and principal towns within each state or territory.  Part V also includes data for the U.S. as a whole.

Beginning with Part I and through Part XIX, the economic data are provided by county within states and territories.  Part XX contains totals for the states/territories and the U.S. as a whole.

The “Appendix” provides data tables relating to the apportionments based on the first six censuses.  It also contains summary population data tables (called “abstracts”) for the states and territories (where applicable) and the U.S. as a whole for the first five censuses (1790 through 1830).  The “Index” is the index to the original publication.

Document Sections

Number of Persons Employed in Mines, Agriculture, Commerce, Manufactures, etc.

By States

A Note on Language

Census statistics date back to 1790 and reflect the growth and change of the United States. Past census reports contain some terms that today’s readers may consider obsolete and inappropriate. As part of our goal to be open and transparent with the public, we are improving access to all Census Bureau original publications and statistics, which serve as a guide to the nation's history.

Page Last Revised - March 7, 2023
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